Pathways Affected


This formula has a positive impact on the following Biochemical Pathways / Metabolic Control Systems:

 AMPK (5’ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) is found inside every cell and serves as the body’s “master regulating switch”.  Research to date has shown:

  • Extension of life span by as much as 20-30% in animals
  • Modulates insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells improving glucose uptake in cells
  • Inhibits lipogenesis and increases lipolysis
  • Reduces blood triglycerides
  • Decreases liver fat accumulation and fat-related chronic inflammation (down-regulating acetyl CoA carboxylase)
  • Can generate new, healthy mitochondria (mitochondrial biogenesis)
  • Stimulates hepatic fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis
  • Inhibition of cholesterol synthesis (down-regulating HMG CoA reductase)
  • Stimulates skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation
  • Improvement in muscular performance
  • Reversal of metabolic senescence
  • Stimulates the MTOR pathway to enhance autophagy in muscle (a complex process that can be regarded as a form of housekeeping or remodelling)

NF-kappaB  (kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) is a protein complex  found in almost all animal cell types that controls transcription of DNA, cytokine production and cell survival and plays a key role in regulating the immune response to infection.

 Nrf2  Pathway (Nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2) has been referred to as the “master regulator of antioxidant, detoxification and cell defense gene expression…”  This pathway regulates the expression of a set of antioxidant and detoxifying genes, protecting the body from oxidative stress-related conditions, including (but not limited to) those affecting the brain and nervous system.  Please see Nrf2 Signalling Pathway:  Regulation of Antioxidants, Health Optimization, Anti-Aging for more complete information.

Calorie Restriction Mimetic (CRM) properties refers to ingredients that mimic caloric restriction (CR) which has been shown to provide significant anti-aging benefits in animals and humans

PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors) gamma is a protein that binds to DNA to increase gene expression.  It’s actions include: 

  • Increases insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion, which decreases blood glucose
  • Blocks inflammation (MAPK, NF-kappaB, and others)
  • Increases FGF-21. FGF-21 has been shown to benefit insulin sensitivity, blood glucose, cholesterol profile and decrease body weight Inflammation in your heart and reduces cholesterol
  • Reduces blood pressure
  • Increases ApoE (Apolipoprotein E) and lowers inflammation
  • Increases PON1 (R) (paraoxonase 1), an antioxidant and protects the heart